Historical Understandings

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The student will describe how early Native American cultures developed in North America a) Locate where Native Americans settled with emphasis on the Arctic (Inuit), Northwest (Kwakiutl), Plateau (Nez Perce), Southwest (Hopi), Plains (Pawnee), and Southeast (Seminole) how Native Americans used their environment to obtain food, clothing, and shelter.
The student will describe European exploration in North America a) Describe the reasons for, obstacles to, and accomplishments of the Spanish, French, and English explorations of John Cabot, Vasco Nez de Balboa, Juan Ponce de Len, Christopher Columbus, Henry Hudson, and Jacques Cartier b) Describe examples of cooperation and conflict between Europeans and Native Americans.
The student will explain the factors that shaped British colonial America a) Compare and contrast life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies b) Describe colonial life in America as experienced by various people, including large landowners, farmers, artisans, women, indentured servants, slaves, and Native Americans.
The student will explain the causes, events, and results of the American Revolution a) Trace the events that shaped the revolutionary movement in America, including the French and Indian War, British Imperial Policy that led to the 1765 Stamp Act, the slogan no taxation without representation, the activities of the Sons of Liberty, and the Boston Tea Party b) Explain the writing of the Declaration of Independence; include who wrote it, how it was written, why it was necessary, and how it was a response to tyranny and the abuse of power c) Describe the major events of the American Revolution and explain the factors leading to American victory and British defeat; include the Battles of Lexington and Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown d) Describe key individuals in the American Revolution with emphasis on King George III, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Benedict Arnold, Patrick Henry, and John Adams.
The student will analyze the challenges faced by the new national. Identify the weaknesses of the government established by the Articles of Confederation b) Identify the major leaders of the Constitutional Convention (James Madison and Benjamin Franklin) and describe the major issues they debated, including the rights of states, the Great Compromise, and slavery c) Identify the three branches of the US government as outlined by the Constitution, describe what they do, how they relate to each other (checks and balances and separation of power), and how they relate to the states d) Identify and explain the rights in the Bill of Rights, describe how the Bill of Rights places limits on the power of government, and explain the reasons for its inclusion in the Constitution in 1791eDescribe the causes and events of the War of 1812; include the burning of the Capitol and the White House.
The student will explain westward expansion of America between 1801 and 1861aDescribe territorial expansion with emphasis on the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the acquisitions of Texas (the Alamo and independence), Oregon (Oregon Trail), and California (Gold Rush and the development of mining towns) the impact of the steamboat, the steam locomotive, and the telegraph on life in America c) Describe the impact of westward expansion on Native Americans.
The student will examine the main ideas of the abolitionist and suffrage movements a) Discuss the biographies of Harriet Tubman and Elizabeth Cady Stanton b) Explain the significance of Sojourner Truth to the abolition and suffrage movements.

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