Historical Understandings

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The student will explain the causes, major events, and consequences of the Civil War a) Identify Uncle Toms Cabin and John Browns raid on Harpers Ferry, and explain how each of these events was related to the Civil War b) Discuss how the issues of states rights and slavery increased tensions between the North and South c) Identify major battles and campaigns: Fort Sumter, Gettysburg, the Atlanta Campaign, Sherman's March to the Sea, and Appomattox Court Housed d) Describe the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E Lee, Ulysses S Grant, Jefferson Davis, and Thomas Stonewall Jackson e) Describe the effects of war on the North and South.
The student will analyze the effects of Reconstruction on American life a) Describe the purpose of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments b) Explain the work of the Freedmen's Bureau c) Explain how slavery was replaced by sharecropping and how African-Americans were prevented from exercising their newly won rights; include a discussion of Jim Crow laws and customs.
The student will describe how life changed in America at the turn of the century a) Describe the role of the cattle trails in the late 19th century; include the Black Cowboys of Texas, the Great Western Cattle Trail, and the Chisholm Trail b) Describe the impact on American life of the Wright brothers (flight), George Washington Carver (science), Alexander Graham Bell (communication), and Thomas Edison (electricity)c) Explain how William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt expanded Americas role in the world; include the Spanish-American War and the building of the Panama Canal d) Describe the reasons people emigrated to the United States, from where they emigrated, and where they settled e) Describe the impact of westward expansion on Native Americans; include the Battle of the Little Bighorn and the relocation of Native Americans to reservations.
The student will describe U.S. involvement in World War I and post-World War I America a) Explain how German attacks on U.S. shipping during the war in Europe (1914- 1917) ultimately led the US. to join the fight against Germany; include the sinking of the Lusitania and concerns over safety of U.S. ships, U.S. contributions to the war, and the impact of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919bDescribe the cultural developments and individual contributions in the 1920s of the Jazz Age (Louis Armstrong), the Harlem Renaissance (Langston Hughes), baseball (Babe Ruth), the automobile (Henry Ford), and the airplane (Charles Lindbergh).
The student will explain how the Great Depression and New Deal affected the lives of millions of Americans a) Discuss the Stock Market Crash of 1929, Herbert Hoover, Franklin Roosevelt, the Dust Bowl, and soup kitchens b) Analyze the main features of the New Deal; include the significance of the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Works Progress Administration, and the Tennessee Valley Authority c) Discuss important cultural elements of the 1930s; include Duke Ellington, Margaret Mitchell, and Jesse Owens.
The student will explain the reasons for Americas involvement in World War II a) Describe Germanys aggression in Europe and Japans aggression in Asia b) Describe major events in the war in both Europe and the Pacific; include Pearl Harbor, Iwo Jima, D-Day, VE and VJ Days, and the Holocaust c) Discuss President Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki d) Identify Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill, Hirohito, Truman, Mussolini, and Hitler e) Describe the effects of rationing and the changing role of women and African Americans; include Rosie the Riveter and the Tuskegee Airmen f) Explain the U.S. role in the formation of the United Nations.
The student will discuss the origins and consequences of the Cold War a) Explain the origin and meaning of the term Iron Curtain. Explain how the United States sought to stop the spread of communism through the Berlin airlift, the Korean War, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Identify Joseph McCarthy and Nikita Khrushchev.
The student will describe the importance of key people, events, and developments between 1950-1975. Discuss the importance of the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Vietnam War. Explain the key events and people of the Civil Rights movement; include Brown Board of Education (1954), the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the March on Washington, Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act, and civil rights activities of Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Describe the impact on American society of the assassinations of President John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Discuss the significance of the technologies of television and space exploration.
The student will trace important developments in America since 1975. Describe US involvement in world events; include efforts to bring peace to the Middle East, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Persian Gulf War, and the War on Terrorism in response to September 11, 2001. Explain the impact the development of the personal computer and the Internet has had on American life.

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