The student will analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 CE and 1500 CE. Analyze the importance of Justinian, include the influence of the Empress Theodora, Justinian's Code, and Justinian's efforts to recapture the west. Describe the relationship between the Roman and Byzantine Empires; include the impact Byzantium had on Moscow and the Russian Empire, the effect of Byzantine culture on Tsar Ivan III and Kiev, and the rise of Constantinople as a center for law, religion, and the arts. Explain the Great Schism of 1054 CE. Analyze the spread of the Mongol Empire; include the role of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan in developing the empire, the impact of the Mongols on Russia, China and the West, the development of trade, and European observations through the writings of Marco Polo. Explain the Ottoman Empire's role in the decline of Byzantium and the capture of Constantinople in 1453 CE.