The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation. Explain the social, economic, and political changes that contributed to the rise of Florence and the ideas of Machiavelli. Identify artistic and scientific achievements of Leonardo da Vinci, the Renaissance man, and Michelangelo. Explain the main characteristics of humanism; include the ideas of Petrarch, Dante, and Erasmus. Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation; include the ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin. Describe the Counter Reformation at the Council of Trent and the role of the Jesuits. Describe the English Reformation and the role of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. Explain the importance of Gutenberg and the invention of the printing press.