# Geometry

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Experiment with transformations in the plane. • Represent transformations in the plane. • Compare rigid motions that preserve distance and angle measure (translations, reflections, rotations) to transformations that do not preserve both distance and angle measure (e.g. stretches, dilations). • Understand that rigid motions produce congruent figures while dilations produce similar figures.
Given a triangle, quadrilateral, or regular polygon, describe any reflection or rotation symmetry i.e., actions that carry the figure onto itself. Identify center and angle(s) of rotation symmetry. Identify line(s) of reflection symmetry.
Verify experimentally properties of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments.
Given a geometric figure and a rigid motion, find the image of the figure. Given a geometric figure and its image, specify a rigid motion or sequence of rigid motions that will transform the pre-image to its image.
Determine whether two figures are congruent by specifying a rigid motion or sequence of rigid motions that will transform one figure onto the other.
Use the properties of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent.
Use congruence in terms of rigid motion. Justify the ASA, SAS, and SSS criteria for triangle congruence. Use criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, SSS, HL) to determine whether two triangles are congruent.
Prove theorems about lines and angles and use them to prove relationships in geometric figures including: • Vertical angles are congruent. • When a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent. • When a transversal crosses parallel lines, corresponding angles are congruent. • Points are on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment if and only if they are equidistant from the endpoints of the segment. • Use congruent triangles to justify why the bisector of an angle is equidistant from the sides of the angle.
Prove theorems about triangles and use them to prove relationships in geometric figures including: • The sum of the measures of the interior angles of a triangle is 180º. • An exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of its remote interior angles. • The base angles of an isosceles triangle are congruent. • The segment joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length.
Verify experimentally the properties of dilations with given center and scale factor:
When a line segment passes through the center of dilation, the line segment and its image lie on the same line. When a line segment does not pass through the center of dilation, the line segment and its image are parallel.
The length of the image of a line segment is equal to the length of the line segment multiplied by the scale factor.
The distance between the center of a dilation and any point on the image is equal to the scale factor multiplied by the distance between the dilation center and the corresponding point on the pre-image.
Dilations preserve angle measure.
Understand similarity in terms of transformations.
Determine whether two figures are similar by specifying a sequence of transformations that will transform one figure into the other.
Use the properties of dilations to show that two triangles are similar when all corresponding pairs of sides are proportional and all corresponding pairs of angles are congruent.
Use transformations (rigid motions and dilations) to justify the AA criterion for triangle similarity.
Use similarity to solve problems and to prove theorems about triangles. Use theorems about triangles to prove relationships in geometric figures. • A line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two sides proportionally and its converse. • The Pythagorean Theorem
Verify experimentally that the side ratios in similar right triangles are properties of the angle measures in the triangle, due to the preservation of angle measure in similarity. Use this discovery to develop definitions of the trigonometric ratios for acute angles.
Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve problems involving right triangles in terms of a context.
Develop properties of special right triangles (45-45-90 and 30-60-90) and use them to solve problems.

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