The student applies mathematical process standards to understand how to represent and compare whole numbers, the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers, and relationships within the numeration system. The student is expected to:

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The student applies mathematical process standards to understand how to represent and compare whole numbers, the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers, and relationships within the numeration system. The student is expected to:

Count forward and backward to at least 20 with and without objects;

Read, write, and represent whole numbers from 0 to at least 20 with and without objects or pictures;

Count a set of objects up to at least 20 and demonstrate that the last number said tells the number of objects in the set regardless of their arrangement or order;

Recognize instantly the quantity of a small group of objects in organized and random arrangements;

Generate a set using concrete and pictorial models that represents a number that is more than, less than, and equal to a given number up to 20;

Generate a number that is one more than or one less than another number up to at least 20;

Compare sets of objects up to at least 20 in each set using comparative language;

Use comparative language to describe two numbers up to 20 presented as written numerals;

Compose and decompose numbers up to 10 with objects and pictures.

The student applies mathematical process standards to develop an understanding of addition and subtraction situations in order to solve problems. The student is expected to:

Model the action of joining to represent addition and the action of separating to represent subtraction;

Solve word problems using objects and drawings to find sums up to 10 and differences within 10;

Explain the strategies used to solve problems involving adding and subtracting within 10 using spoken words, concrete and pictorial models, and number sentences.

The student applies mathematical process standards to identify coins in order to recognize the need for monetary transactions. The student is expected to identify U. S. Coins by name, including pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters.